1. Stock-to-use ratios (SUR) are calculated as a form shown below:
SUR(%) = (exports + total domestic consumption)/stock x 100
However, for the SUR of the world total, exports are excluded in the equation.
2. Below, this is a general explanation
for the PS&D View from the USDA.
In this file, structure of each region is also shown toward the end.
THE PS&D DATABASE
The Production, Supply, and Distribution (PS&D) database contains the official
data on world production, stocks, trade, and consumption of major agricultural
commodities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It includes most of the
major agricultural commodities and countries, although country and time
coverage differ considerably among commodities.
The USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) maintains the database. The data
are reviewed and updated regularly. The international portion of the data is
updated with input from agricultural attaches stationed at U.S. embassies
around the world, FAS commodity analysts, and country and commodity analysts
with ERS. The domestic component is updated with input from analysts in ERS,
FAS, the NationalAgricultural Statistical Service, and the Farm Service Agency
(formerly Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service). Interagency
work on the database is carried out under the aegis of the World Agricultural
Outlook Board (WAOB).
The PS&D data is published periodically in the Foreign Agricultural Circular
series issued by FAS, in the regional situation and outlook reports and monthly
commodity newsletters of ERS, and in the WAOB's World Agricultural Supply and
PS&D VIEW SOFTWARE
The TS ("Time Series") software used to view the PS&D data files was designed
by Karl Gudmunds and Alan Webb of USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) and
programmed by Karl Gudmunds. Its development has benefitted greatly from the
feedback of users within ERS and worldwide.
The TS program is a DOS application that requires MS-DOS 3.0 or greater (or
compatible operating systems), 300KB RAM and graphics capability. If running
TS from within MS-Windows or IBM OS/2, then set the program icon reference to
start TS as a full-screen session as TS initializes a graphics mode that will
suspend a windowed session.
The PS&D VIEW data and software package is available through subscription on an
quarterly, or monthly basis; call ERS's subscription service
It is also available on the Internet, along with other USDA ERS data
products. See the USDA ERS Web site at http://www.econ.ag.gov for information
and data files.
PS&D VIEW FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PS&D VIEW AND TS?
PS&D View is the name of the Economic Research Service's data product that
includes USDA's Production, Supply, and Distribution (PS&D) database. TS
(Time Series) is the software ERS has designed to read the database in
HOW OFTEN IS PS&D VIEW UPDATED?
Grains, oilseeds, and cotton = monthly,
appearing on the Internet Web sight about mid-month.
Sugar & the livestock complex = twice annually,
appearing at the same time as the monthly crops data.
sugar, estimated May and Nov., should appear in June and December.
livestock, estimated March & Oct., should appear in April and
ON THE INTERNET, HOW DO I KNOW WHEN PS&DVIEW HAS BEEN UPDATED OR WHEN CHANGES
A small file called DATETIME.TXT indicates the date of the most recent
update available on the Internet Web sight. This DOC should appear near the
top of the list of files.
Another small file called ANNOUNCE.DOC will occassionally also appear near
the top of the list of files to identify changes in or problems with TS or the
WHEN DOES USDA FIRST FORECAST THE NEXT YEAR?
U.S. & world crop totals = May.
Individual countries for wheat and coarse grains = May.
Individual countries for rice, oilseeds, & cotton = July
Livestock complex = late October (appears on Internet w/ November data
Sugar = late May (appears on Internet w/ June data release)
HOW DOES USDA'S DATA DIFFER FROM FAO'S?
USDA projects on a marketing year basis (except for the livestock
complex); FAO uses calendar years for all commodities.
USDA provides projections and forecasts for the current season in
progress; FAO releases data for a country and commodity mainly after the
season ends and generally does not include forecasts for the year in
USDA estimates are based on a number of available sources; FAO is required
to use a member countries' official statistics.
WHAT DATA DOES USDA USE?
USDA uses official country statistics, reports from agricultural attaches
at U.S. embassies, international organizations, publications from the country,
traders both inside and outside the country, and other available information.
WHEN DOES USDA USE ESTIMATES FROM A COUNTRIES' GOVERNMENT AND WHEN DOES IT USE
Most often, the eventual "final" figure used by USDA is the official
figure from the countries' government. In some cases, another source may be
used instead of the government because that source has over time proven to be
more complete, more reliable, or more timely than the government source.
During the current season in progress most data are forecasts. Some of
these current year forecasts also are based on the countries' official
releases. For example, developed countries often release timely, survey-based,
updates as the producing season progresses. They also release monthly trade
data and some consumption and stock data during the season. USDA uses these
data, except if a sharp change has altered the situation since the date of the
countries' survey; then USDA will try to account for this change in its
forecasts. For most other countries the current season is a USDA forecast
based on progress reports from other sources.
ARE PS&Ds FOR ALL COUNTRIES UPDATED EVERY MONTH?
For the commodities updated monthly--grains, oilseeds, and cotton--usually
only the most significant countries are considered each month and updated if
new information is available. Other countries are updated only when new
information becomes available. PS&Ds for many African countries are updated
only twice a year--in May and about January.
WHEN IS PS&D DATA A PROJECTION & WHEN DOES IT BECOME "FINAL"?
Because the timing of release of "final" estimates for each commodity
in each country differs widely with the country and the commodity, at any given
point in time some of the data in PS&D View for the last few years will be
forecasts. Updating with the countries' official data could begin as early as
December or January for some countries; but other countries are still revising
their "final" figures as much as 2 or more years after the end of a season.
And if a country never releases data for a given variable--ending stocks
for example--then that data remains a USDA estimate based on the best
information available. Additionally, a few countries release little or no
information at all or only very sporadic statements (North Korea for example).
Data in the USDA data base for these countries is always a forecast.
WHAT UNITS ARE USED IN PS&D VIEW?
All units are metric unless otherwise noted.
GRAINS, OILSEEDS, COTTON & SUGAR--
AREA = 1000 hectares harvested, except
when countries only release planted area data, then planted area data
is used instead of harvested area even though it is labeled
YIELD = tons per hectare; (rice yield is, milled basis.)
PRODUCTION, TRADE, & USE = 1000 metric tons,
rice = milled basis (a separate column is provided for rough (paddy)
weight rice), cotton = lint basis,
sugar = raw basis or in raw sugar equivalents.
Live animals are in 1000 head.
Red meat is in carcass weight.
Poultry is in ready-to-cook weight.
Eggs are in 1 million count.
Number of egg layers is in 1000 count.
WHY DOESN'T THE PS&D VIEW WORLD TOTAL FOR THE LIVESTOCK COMPLEX INCLUDE EVERY
COUNTRY IN THE WORLD?
For the livestock complex the "world total" in PS&D View is the sum of
only those countries included in the USDA database, which for livestock
includes only representative countries. The representative countries in the
USDA database capture about 90 percent of world livestock trade. In USDA
livestock publications, this sum is more correctly labeled a "selected country
total", not a "world total".
WHICH YEARS ARE USED FOR THE COMMODITIES IN PS&D VIEW & THE USDA DATABASE?
For the livestock complex, the years listed are calendar years.
For grains, oilseeds, & cotton, the year listed is the first year of the
countries' local marketing year for that commodity (e.g. 1990 represents
But for sugar, the year listed is the last year of the countries' local
marketing year (e.g. 1990 represents 1989/90).
Local marketing years differ by country and by commodity and therefore do
not aggregate logically.
SO WHAT ARE THE EXCEPTIONS TO THE YEARS IN PS&D VIEW?
For some variables, in order to more accurately aggregate world totals,
the years must be made consistent for all countries.
For GRAINS a STANDARD TRADE YEAR has been created in the USDA database.
In PS&D View, additional import & export columns have been added on the far
right; this is the grain trade data adjusted to a standard trade year. These
standard trade years are the years on which the published USDA grain trade data
is based. The standard grain trade years are:
wheat = July/June,
coarse grains = October/September,
rice = January/December calendar year following the marketing year
indicated (e.g. 1990 shows standardized rice trade in the far right
columns for 1991).
For COTTON, all data internal to each countries' supply and use balance is
adjusted, wherever possible, to a STANDARD AUGUST/JULY year.
THEN WHY DOESN'T THE STANDARD GRAIN TRADE DATA IN PS&D VIEW MATCH PUBLISHED
USDA GRAIN TRADE?
Grain trade data used by USDA is published in the monthly: FAS,
Grain:World Markets and Trade. This trade is adjusted to a standard trade year
for a consistent world total and also has been adjusted to exclude intra-EU
The standard grain trade in the far right columns in PS&D View has not
been adjusted to exclude intra-EU trade. Although PS&D View data for area,
yield, production, consumption, and stocks, and for other countries, are
identical to the published USDA data, the standard grain trade for the EU and
any aggregates including the EU such as world and foreign, differs from the
published USDA data.
To obtain the most recent 5 years of USDA's adjusted world grain trade
data, go to the Internet Web sight http://www.fas.usda.gov for the FAS grain
circular publication or call Grain Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA
Additionally, the grain data published in the monthly: WAOB, World
Agricultural Supply & Demand Estimates (WASDE) for supply and use variables
other than trade also are the same as the USDA data published in the FAS grain
circular. But WASDE's grain trade data also differs because it is aggregated
on the local marketing year basis (the same as the internal PS&D View grain
trade data), has not been adjusted to the standard trade year, and includes
WHY DON'T SOYBEAN ENDING STOCKS, AND SOMETIMES CONSUMPTION AND TRADE DATA, IN
PS&D VIEW MATCH PUBLISHED USDA DATA?
The world soybean supply and use data used by USDA is published in the
monthly: FAS, Oilseeds: World Markets & Trade. This data adjusts Brazil and
Argentina from local marketing years to a standard October/September marketing
year for a more consistent world total. Thus, stocks for these two countries
and the world are calculated as of September rather than as of the end of their
local soybean marketing years (Feb/Jan and Apr/Mar).
In PS&D View, all supply and use variables for Brazil and Argentina remain
on the local marketing year basis and are not adjusted. Although the area,
yield, and production data in PS&D View are the same as the published USDA
data, ending stocks and trade for Brazil, Argentina, and any aggregates
including either of these 2 countries, differ from the published USDA data.
To obtain the most recent 5 years of USDA oilseeds ending stocks data go
to http://www.fas.usda.gov for the monthly FAS Oilseeds circular publication or
call Oilseeds Division, Foreign Agriculture Service, USDA (202-720-7037). Or
consult the monthly publication WAOB, World Agricultural Supply & Demand
Estimates (WASDE), which also contains adjusted USDA data for Brazil and
Argentina, and can be found at on the Internet at
WHY DON'T WORLD & FOREIGN GRAIN CONSUMPTION SUM CORRECTLY FROM THE REGIONAL
World & foreign grain consumption, both published & in PS&D View, have
been adjusted by the difference between imports and exports on the local
marketing year on the assumption that trade at the world level should balance.
Regional & country totals however, are not adjusted.
WHY DO PS&D VIEW'S HISTORICAL DATA FOR EU LIVESTOCK SOMETIMES DIFFER FROM
PUBLISHED USDA DATA?
The USDA data published in FAS, Livestock & Poultry: World Markets &
Trade, in some cases may not yet include all the countries of Finland, Sweden,
and Austria, which in 1996 were added to the EC-12 to make EU-15. PS&D View
includes all data in the USDA database for these countries in a complete EU-15
To obtain USDA's
published data go to http://www.fas.usda.gov for
the bi-annual FAS Livestock & Poultry circular publication or call Dairy, Livestock, &
Poultry Division, Foreign Agriculture Service, USDA (202-720-8031).
WHY DON'T PS&D VIEW'S BROILERS AND TURKEYS SUM TO TOTAL POULTRY?
"Broilers" and "turkeys" in PS&D View include only the young or breeding
birds. Data on "older, spent birds" and data on "ducks" are not available in
individual time series by country for use in the USDA database or PS&D View.
However, in the database and PS&D View "total poultry" has been adjusted to
include the available information on "older, spent birds" and, in countries
where data is reported, "ducks".
WHY IS THE COLUMN "IMPORTS FROM THE US" NOT ALWAYS UP-TO-DATE?
The column imports from the U.S. is updated in USDA's database only once a
year to avoid partial projections.
Consumption = domestic use for feed, food, seed, industrial uses, and
waste. For oilseeds, consumption also includes the amount crushed for oil and
meal uses; but for oils and meals, seed is not a use.
DEFINE USDA'S OILSEEDS AND MEALS. HOW DOES TOTAL VEGETABLE OIL DIFFER FROM
OILSEEDS = soybean, cottonseed, peanut, rapeseed (canola),
sunflowerseed, copra, and palm kernel.
OIL MEALS= soybean, cottonseed, peanut, rapeseed, sunflowerseed, copra,
palm kernel, and fish meal.
TROPICAL OILS = coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernal oils.
VEGETABLE OILS= soybean, cottonseed, peanut, rapeseed, sunflowerseed,
coconut, palm, palm kernel, and olive oils.
TOTAL OILS = soybean, cottonseed, peanut, rapeseed, sunflowerseed, coconut,
palm, palm kernel, olive, and fish oils.
DEFINE USDA'S COARSE GRAINS.
Coarse grains include corn, barley, sorghum, rye, oats, millet, and mixed
LATEST NEW PS&D VIEW COUNTRY AND REGION DEFINITIONS & ORDER:
(all CAPITALIZED countries & regions are listed separately in PS&D contents;
small letters indicate composition).
~ Indicates regions, a sum to be excluded when calculating ranks; except
! are other regions users might want to include as indivdual countries for
* An attempt is made to place all countries on the correct geographical
continent. Unfortunately, the Former USSR and new RUSSIA data cannot be
divided and must be placed in either Europe or Asia, not both; they're in
Europe. Thus the new EUROPE and ASIA & NEAR EAST regions are
discontinuous prior to 1987 when the series switch from the former USSR
data to the NIS (15 Republics of former USSR) data.
~WORLD Foreign + US
~FOREIGN World - US; includes, but will NOT add from: W Hem
(-US) + Europe + Africa + Asia & Near East + Oceania
~DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Canada + US + EU + Oth W Eur + Israel + Rep S
Africa + Japan + Australia + New Zealand
~LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Foreign - Developed - Asian NICs - NIS (former
Sov Un) - E Eur
~WESTERN HEMISPHERE N. Hem. Americas + S. America
~LATIN AMERICA Mexico + C America + Caribbean + S America
~NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AMERICAS North America + Caribbean + Central America
GREENLAND (geographically N. America, despite politically Terr. of Denmark;
data separate from Denmark)
FRENCH WEST INDIES
JAMAICA & DEPENDENCIES
ST. KITTS & NEVIS
ST. VINCENT & GRENADINES
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
~SOUTH AMERICA TOTAL Argentina + Brazil + Other South America
~OTHER SOUTH AMERICA S. America - Brazil- Argentina
~EUROPE* EU + Oth W Eur + E Eur + Baltics + Oth. Eur. NIS + Russia* + former
USSR* (prior to 1986)
(Excludes Caucasus Republics + Central Asian Republics of NIS from
!EU-15 (European Union)
BELGIUM & LUXEMBOURG
GERMANY, UNITED (begins 1991)
Former FRG (ends 1990)
Former GDR (ends 1990)
~OTHER WESTERN EUROPE
MALTA & GOZO
Former CZECHOSLOVAKIA (ends 1991)
CZECH REPUBLIC (begins 1992)
SLOVAKIA (begins 1992)
BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA (new country; no data yet)
CROATIA (new country; no data yet)
MACEDONIA (new country; no data yet)
SLOVENIA (new country; no data yet)
YUGOSLAVIA (Serbia + Montenegro; new country; no data yet)
!NIS (Newly Independent States) 15 FSU Repbulics beginning 1987 + former
USSR ending 1986
~OTHER EUROPEAN NIS REPUBLICS
~CAUCASUS REPUBLICS (excluded from Europe)
~CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS (excluded from Europe)
~AFRICA TOTAL Rep. S. Africa + SubSaharan Africa + N. Africa
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
~SUBSAHARAN AFRICA W. Af. + C. Af. + E. Af. + Southern Af.
(Excludes Rep S Africa)
CAPE VERDE ISLANDS
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE
DJIBOUTI & AFARS-ISSAS
~MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA Mid East + N Africa
GAZA STRIP (new country; no data yet)
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
WEST BANK (new country; no data yet)
YEMEN, UNITED (begins 1991)
Former YEMEN, SOUTH (ADEN) (ends 1990)
Former YEMEN, NORTH (SANAA) (ends 1990)
~ASIA & NEAR EAST* Asia + Mid. E. + Caucasus Republics + Central Asian
~ASIA & OCEANIA Asia + Oceania
~ASIA Greater China + NE Asia + SE Asia + S Asia
~OCEANIA Australia + New Zealand + Other Oceania
KIRIBATI & TUVALU/GILBERT & ELLICE ISLANDS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
~ASIAN NICs (Newly Industralized Countries) Hong Kong + S Korea + Singapore +
~TRANSITIONING ECONOMIES NIS (15 FSURepublics + former USSR) + E Eur
~REORIENTING ECONOMIES Transitioning Economies + China + Mongolia + Cambodia
+ Laos + Vietnam (Excludes N Korea & Cuba, so not
precisely = former Centrally Planned)
~NAFTA Canada + Mexico + United States
~MERCOSUR Argentina + Brazil + Paraguay + Uruguay
~OECD Australia + New Zealand + Japan + NAFTA + Iceland + Norway +
Switzerland + Turkey + EU
~PECC (Pacific Economic Cooperation Confernce)
NAFTA + Chile + Colombia + Peru + Brunei + China + Hong Kong + Indonesia +
Japan + S Korea + Malaysia + Philippines + Singapore + Taiwan + Thailand +
Vietnam + Russia + Australia + New Zealand + Papua New Guinea
~APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum)
NAFTA + Chile + Brunei + China + Hong Kong + Japan + Indonesia + S Korea +
Malaysia + Philippines + Singapore + Taiwan + Australia + New Zealand +
Papua New Guinea+Thailand
~ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
Brunei + Indonesia + Malaysia + Philippines + Singapore + Thailand +
~CER (Closer Economic Relations) Australia + New Zealand
~CER/AFTA (CER & ASEAN Free Trade Area) CER + ASEAN
If you have questions about the PS&D data, please contact:
USDA, ERS, room 5023
1800 M Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036-5831
If you have questions about the TS software, please contact:
USDA, ERS, room 3004
1800 M Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036-5831
*** End of file ***